Today, Cuba stands at a crossroads: it has a new president, Raul Castro, who was gradually granted power by his brother ; a new relationship with the USA, as President Barack Obama and Raul Castro moved to normalise a diplomatic relationship; and, paradoxically, it retains a closed Communist system for the Cuban people, boasting world-leading education and healthcare provision albeit with accompanying suppression of freedoms and political representation, and yet it has developed a booming open tourism economy that is bringing travellers from all over the world to the island.
The Spanish colonists played traditional music from their homeland. These folk songs were performed for dance and for entertainment, and offered a means of maintaining a connection to Spanish culture and identity. Later, once Cuba had been firmly established and protected as a Spanish possession, colonists from high Spanish society came over to the island and so art music and European ballroom dances became popular in its emerging urban centres. These were performed as a stimulus for dance and as a form of aesthetic pleasure and entertainment at social events, but they also acted as a signal of class and power, an affirmative symbol of the wealthy, educated elite who ruled the island.
As the colonists imported slaves into Cuba, traditional African musical forms came to the island. For both groups, music revolved around drumming and dance related to religious worship, including ritualised communication with the spirit realm and spirit possession ceremonies. The Spanish forced all slaves to convert to Roman Catholicism, but they permitted them to maintain their own traditional customs and to run their own cabildos social associations administering their communities and their cultural and religious practices.
They also integrated some aspects of Christian worship, such as Catholic liturgical chant, but they both largely maintained their traditional worship customs and, by extension, their religious music practices. These practices praised the mystical power of nature and would also sometimes call on the spirits for advice, blessings or medicine. In these fiestas lie the Afro-Cuban prototypes of son and rumba , with their distinctive claves son and claves rumba rhythms, as well as the conga dance and the congas drums.
Their early music bore some affinities to that of the folk music of the earlier Spanish settlers, and they too sang religious and pastoral canciones , but their traditions were influenced by newer Arabic-infused Andalusian musicsand, as they adapted their form to their new life in Cuba, their texts, soundworld and purposes for music emerged as completely distinct.
This music served as a form of recreation and aesthetic pleasure for individuals and for guajira communities, who would not only perform these songs at communal gatherings but would also sing them across the tobacco farms to each other in a responsorial fashion as they worked the fields. Around the same time, itinerant black and mulatto artisans, based in Santiago in Oriente , developed a vocal tradition, trova , which involved the sentimental performance of poetic song genres like bolero accompanied by guitar.
The intricacies of the interactions, exchanges and transmissions are mind-bogglingly complex, but can be generalised into two main strands: rumba in the West and son in the Oriente. Others believe that rumba only truly emerged when African slaves became the urban working class in urban Matanzas and La Habana. In the late 19 th C, after the emancipation of slaves , free black and mulatto Cubans started to move from the plantations and the baracones slave barracks all over the island into the central urban cities including Matanzas and, especially, La Habana.
X… ; and columbia, a fast male dance X. Its standard ensemble emerged as gallo lead singer and coro chorus , with congas trio of barrel-shaped drums: salidor , tres-dos and quinto and claves together with other percussion instruments. It features responsorial singing with vocal improvisation in the diana opening section followed by alternation between versos sung in harmony by gallo and coro , with vocal flourishes between lines from the gallo , estribillos a specific form of call and response involving an improvised call from the gallo which is taken as a repeating refrain for the coro against which the gallo improvises interjections and instrumental solos.
Mehldau extends this C-minor descent in the third chorus to A measure , reharmonizing F in the melody with a foreign D major chord before returning to A. Mehldau repeats the lower-neighbor motion around A in the fifth and sixth choruses—which darkens the F in the melody measures and once again with a remote D major chord. Similar to choruses two and three, he links the D-minor descent in the fifth chorus to the C-minor descent in the sixth chorus by extending the step-wise motion in the bass to an interval of an eleventh from D to A, measures —20, with register transfer.
Whereas Radiohead develops the musical content in the B and C sections mostly through repetitions of central motives e. In his second solo measures — , melodic lines are moderately layered on top of one another, severed into fragments that appear in different registers, and then distorted through alterations of the ground-bass progression. Conclusion [4. Has Radiohead sent you a fruit basket? Adams, Douglas. BBC Radio 4. Adams, Nathaniel E.
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Raga Rock: Popular Music and the Turn to the East in the 1960s
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Kinderman, William. Krebs, Harald. William Kinderman and Harald Krebs, 17— Kristeva, Julia. Leon S.
Play it Again: Cover Songs in Popular Music (Ashgate Popular and Folk Music Series)
New York: Columbia University Press. Paris: Edition du Seuil. Lacasse, Serge. Michael Talbot, 35— Cambridge: Liverpool University Press. Larson, Steve.
Letts, Marianne. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Lewis, Christopher.
Purpose - What is it for?
Studies in Musicology Martin, Henry and Keith Waters. Jazz: The First Years, Vol. Middleton, Richard. Michael Talbot, 59— Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. Moore, Allan. Buckingham: Open University Press. Revised in Burlington: Ashgate. Mosser, Kurt. Accessed July 12, Nettl, Bruno et al. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Accessed July 23, Panken, Ted.
Culturally responsive pedagogy Gay was originally developed to improve the low levels of academic achievement observed in many students of color who attend schools in areas with economic challenges. Gay contends that conventional educational reform efforts have failed because they have a deficit orientation that focuses on what ethnically, racially, and culturally diverse students do not have and cannot do rather than building on what the students can bring to the learning environment.
Teaching popular music can contribute to culturally responsive pedagogical practices in music. This means that elementary and secondary school students who might have much less experience with classical music than many of their Caucasian and Asian American counterparts will not be disadvantaged. Therefore, in order to teach in a culturally responsive manner, it is important that future music educators, who might be more familiar with classical than popular traditions, acquire the knowledge and skills needed to include popular music in their curriculum.
The music education program at UCLA has provided future music teachers with traditional preparation for several decades. Recently, the curriculum was redesigned to address the demographic changes seen in schools as well as the evolving musical interests of modern K—12 students. The curricular revisions are based on the concept of juxtapositional pedagogy Heuser , which is a curricular approach that places contrasting pairs of musical learning experiences that would usually be taught in separate method courses together in a single instructional setting specific examples of juxtapositions are provided later in this chapter.
The purpose of these couplings is to create spaces where the nature of musical thinking and learning can be critically examined and understood from multiple perspectives. Such juxtapositions allow traditional and innovative methodologies to be creatively combined for the express purpose of reconceptualizing and revitalizing music teacher preparation.
Joshua S. Duchan - Department of Music - Wayne State University
This approach allows the faculty to provide future music educators with the skills necessary to teach the traditional offerings of large ensembles and general music in schools while simultaneously preparing them to function in the areas of popular music and multicultural music education. In this juxtapositional approach, popular music pedagogy is not studied as a discrete course but instead infused into all music education method courses.
This reinforces our belief in the value of studying diverse musical styles from a variety of perspectives and cultures. The approach also supports our contention that experiencing different and sometimes contradictory learning experiences allows one to grow as a teacher.
Since it is impossible to provide in-depth knowledge of all the musical styles teachers will need in their careers, this methodology aims to facilitate the development of dispositions needed for future music teachers to become advocates for diversity in music education. The approach also nurtures the flexibility required to adapt to constantly fluctuating classroom environments and student learning needs. Our goal is to cultivate future teachers who can function in diverse school settings and understand that teaching in a musical or cultural tradition other than their own is possible.
Helping future educators acquire the skills and dispositions to approach teaching in these ways occurs throughout our undergraduate program and continues as the novices begin their professional preparation. By engaging in aural learning on both the clarinet and guitar, students develop the confidence in nontraditional learning processes.
The final course assignment requires forming small ensembles with peers of their own choosing, selecting a popular cover song, and performing it for the class without using notation. To further push the students beyond their comfort zones, they cannot use their major instruments and must create the arrangements by working together, thus avoiding having one of the ensemble members predetermine how the arrangement will progress.